Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Todd NeeleyDTN Staff ReporterOMAHA (DTN) — USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has withdrawn a policy to require the use of radio frequency identification, or RFID, of animals in interstate commerce. But a number of ranchers and a national cattle group have yet to withdraw a lawsuit they filed against APHIS last month challenging the policy.The ranchers, led by the Ranchers Cattlemen Action Legal Fund United Stockgrowers of America, or R-CALF USA, alleged in an Oct. 4 lawsuit filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of Wyoming, that a USDA plan on RFID “unlawfully mandates” the technology in ear tags and other technology for livestock.Though APHIS said in an Oct. 25 statement that a factsheet posted to its website is “no longer representative of current agency policy,” court records show the lawsuit has not been dropped.Harriet Hageman, a senior litigation counsel at the New Civil Liberties Alliance in Washington, D.C., told DTN, “APHIS has currently withdrawn the April 2019 factsheet. We are evaluating that decision.”APHIS said it reconsidered the proposal in light of recent executive orders coming from President Donald Trump highlighting the need for “transparency and communication on the issues set forth in the factsheet before placing any new requirements on American farmers and ranchers.”Before the APHIS guidance document was posted, Trump had issued two executive orders designed to prevent federal agencies from using guidance documents to impose legal requirements without following a rulemaking procedure.The agency said it continues to believe RFID technology is important for animal agriculture.“We continue to believe that RFID devices will provide the cattle industry with the best protection against the rapid spread of animal diseases, as well as meet the growing expectations of foreign and domestic buyers,” APHIS said in the statement.The agency said it would “encourage the use of radio frequency identification devices through financial incentives” based on feedback from the industry.In an Oct. 23 R-CALF news release, Hageman said the group was hopeful APHIS was acknowledging the “strength of our lawsuit” in dropping the proposal.The lawsuit alleges the APHIS plan “quickly phases out the use of other types of animal identification, including those methods specifically approved by final rule issued in 2013” by Jan. 1, 2023. The 2013 rule governs the traceability of livestock moving between states. It allows branding, non-RFID ear tags, tattoos, group/lot identification numbers and back tags.The lawsuit claims USDA issued the RFID plan in April 2019 without following notice-and-comment procedures. The group also alleges USDA violated the Federal Advisory Committee Act by relying only on a hand-picked group of members who have been advocating for the use of RFID. That includes industry officials and ear tag manufacturers. R-CALF claims the latest USDA actions violate federal law that requires balanced representation on advisory committees.The lawsuit claims farmers and ranchers could face economic harm as a result of the agency’s actions. USDA has asserted it has the authority to penalize livestock producers not following the 2019 requirement.The 2013 rule came about as a result of concerns about the spread of disease among livestock.Read the APHIS statement here: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/…Todd Neeley can be reached at [email protected] him on Twitter @toddneeleyDTN(AG/SK)© Copyright 2019 DTN/The Progressive Farmer. All rights reserved.
DefinitionKnee joint replacement is surgery to replace a knee joint with a man-made joint. The artificial joint is called a prosthesis.Alternative NamesTotal knee replacement; Knee arthroplasty; Knee replacement – total; Tricompartmental knee replacement; Subvastus knee replacement; Knee replacement – minimally invasive; Knee arthroplasty – minimally invasiveDescriptionDamaged cartilage and bone are removed from the knee joint. Man-made pieces are then placed in the knee.These pieces may be placed in the following places in the knee joint:Lower end of the thigh bone. This bone is called the femur. The replacement part is usually made of metal.Upper end of the shin bone, which is the large bone in your lower leg. This bone is called the tibia. The replacement part is usually made from metal and a strong plastic.Back side of your kneecap. Your kneecap is called the patella. The replacement part is usually made from a strong plastic.You will not feel any pain during the surgery. You will have one of these two types of anesthesia:General anesthesia. This means you will be asleep and unable to feel pain.Regional (spinal or epidural) anesthesia. Medicine is put into your back to make you numb below your waist. You will also get medicine to make you sleepy. And you may get medicine that will make you forget about the procedure, even though you are not fully asleep.After you receive anesthesia, your surgeon will make a cut over your knee to open it up. This cut is often 8 to 10 inches long. Then your surgeon will:advertisementMove your kneecap (patella) out of the way, then cut the ends of your thigh bone and shin (lower leg) bone to fit the replacement part.Cut the underside of your kneecap to prepare it for the new pieces that will be attached there.Fasten the two parts of the prosthesis to your bones. One part will be attached to the end of your thigh bone and the other part will be attached to your shin bone.Attach both parts to the underside of your kneecap. A special bone cement is used to attach these parts.Repair your muscles and tendons around the new joint and close the surgical cut.The surgery takes about 2 hours.Most artificial knees have both metal and plastic parts. Some surgeons now use different materials, including metal on metal, ceramic on ceramic, or ceramic on plastic.Why the Procedure Is PerformedThe most common reason to have a knee joint replaced is to relieve severe arthritis pain. Your doctor may recommend knee joint replacement if:Youre having pain for knee arthritis that keeps you from sleeping or doing normal activities.You cant walk and take care of yourself.Your knee pain has not improved with other treatment.You understand what surgery and recovery will be like.Most of the time, knee joint replacement is done in people ages 60 and older. Younger people who have a knee joint replaced may put extra stress on the artificial knee and cause it to wear out early.Before the ProcedureAlways tell your doctor or nurse what drugs you are taking, even drugs, supplements, or herbs you bought without a prescription.During the 2 weeks before your surgery:Prepare your home.Two weeks before surgery you may be asked to stop taking drugs that make it harder for your blood to clot. These include aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve), blood thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin), and other drugs.You may also need to stop taking medicines that can make your body more likely to get an infection. These include methotrexate, Enbrel, or other medicines that suppress your immune system.Ask your doctor which drugs you should still take on the day of your surgery.If you have diabetes, heart disease, or other medical conditions, your surgeon will ask you to see the doctor who treats you for these conditions.Tell your doctor if you have been drinking a lot of alcohol, more than 1 or 2 drinks a day.If you smoke, you need to stop. Ask your doctor or nurse for help. Smoking will slow down wound and bone healing. Your recovery may not be as good if you keep smoking.Always let your doctor know about any cold, flu, fever, herpes breakout, or other illness you have before your surgery.You may want to visit a physical therapist to learn some exercises to do before surgery.Set up your home to make everyday tasks easier.Practice using a cane, walker, crutches, or a wheelchair correctly.On the day of your surgery:advertisementYou will usually be asked not to drink or eat anything for 6 to 12 hours before the procedure.Take the drugs your doctor told you to take with a small sip of water.Your doctor or nurse will tell you when to arrive at the hospital.After the ProcedureYou will stay in the hospital for 3 to 4 days. During that time you will recover from your anesthesia and from the surgery itself. You will be asked to start moving and walking as soon as the first day after surgery.Full recovery will take4 months to a year.Some people need a short stay in a rehabilitation center after they leave the hospital and before they go home. At a rehab center, you will learn how to safely do your daily activities on your own.Outlook (Prognosis)The results of a total knee replacement are often excellent. The operation relieves pain for most people. Most people do not need help walking after they fully recover.Most artificial knee joints last 10 to 15 years. Some last as long as 20 years before they loosen and need to be replaced again.ReferencesMihalk WM. Arthroplasty of the knee. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbells Operative Orthopaedics. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 7.Jones CA, Beaupre LA, Johnston DW, Suarez-Almazor ME. Total joint arthroplasties: current concepts of patient outcomes after surgery. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2007; 33(1):71-86.Leopold SS. Minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:1749-1758.Review Date:8/12/2013Reviewed By:C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.