Illicit Drug Production Destroys Colombian, Peruvian Ecosystems

first_imgBy Gustavo Arias Retana/Diálogo June 16, 2020 Crop cultivation and the chemicals used to produce drugs have a direct impact on the hemisphere’s flora, soils, fauna, and rivers. Countries like Colombia and Peru are rapidly losing their natural resources and ecosystems due to narcotrafficking, which clears forests to grow marijuana, as well as coca to produce cocaine and poppy for heroin.Toxic waste from chemicals used to extract narcotics lacks proper management and is discarded into bodies of water, polluting groundwater resources and killing thousands of species.The Colombian National Police’s (PNC, in Spanish) report Coca: Deforestation, Pollution, and Poverty indicates that “drug production destroys an average of 40,531 hectares of forest annually in the country, about 111 hectares per day, where 80 percent of the reported tree species only exist in that biome.” Deforestation also entails destroying the habitat of endemic species that are unable to migrate. “In terms of fauna, the figures are: 600 birds, 170 reptiles, 100 amphibians, and more than 600 fish species,” the report says.According to the report Colombia – Survey of Territories Affected by Illicit Crops 2018 from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, “47 percent of [drug] crops are located in national natural parks, indigenous reserves, or black communities […].” The total area damaged by coca crops exceeds 225,000 hectares, the PNC adds.Germán Márquez, professor at the National University of Colombia and researcher at the Institute of Environmental Studies, told Diálogo that the country is among the most affected by logging due to drug production. “Deforestation has been the most direct impact since marijuana crops began in the 1960s and 1970s, and then coca leaf, and to some extent the occupation of many forest areas,” added Marquez.Eliseo Talancha, head of the Peruvian Institute of Environmental Law and Cultural Heritage, told Diálogo that his country is experiencing similar damage to that of Colombia, especially in the Amazon area.“Narcotrafficking is a local and regional environmental problem, mainly located [in the country] in the Peruvian Amazon, in the high and low jungles. It affects resources such as water, and the use of pesticides and chemicals leads to soil erosion,” Talancha added. “Cocaine base paste production causes serious damage in terms of river pollution and loss of fauna.”“We can summarize the main effects as such: interference in strategic ecosystems; thinning of vegetation coverage; extinction of endemic species; reduction of natural areas; deterioration of water sources and decreased capacity to regulate them; decline in water quality due to physical, chemical, or biological degradation; rain cycle alterations; and increased carbon dioxide,” the PNC report says.Some of the chemicals released into the region’s rivers due to cocaine production are kerosene, sulfuric acid, quicklime, carbide, acetone, and toluene, experts say. The production of 1 kilogram of coca base paste requires about 400 to 600 grams of chemicals, which are directly deposited into the region’s water sources.Other drug processing practices that are harmful for ecosystems, the PNC says, are open-air waste accumulation and incineration, as well as river pollution.“Many garbage dumps potentially generate dioxins, furans, and tar, which in some cases have higher toxicity levels than the initial substance [due to decomposition]. The accumulation of open-air and untreated waste generates leachates [toxic waste liquids] that pollute the soil. Waste enters the environment in high concentrations and ends up in bodies of water, merged with soil particles and, in the worst-case scenario, is accumulated and magnified. At this point, the pressure on the habitat is not limited to the crop area alone, but gets exported to the entire ecosystem,” the PNC emphasizes in the report.last_img read more

Turkey 2013:Sellas Tetteh makes four changes to line-up to face Spain

first_imgGhana U20 coach Sellas Tetteh has made four changes to his starting line-up to face Spain in tonight’s must-win Group A clash.The former Rwanda national team coach has handed starting roles to Richmond Boakye-Yiadom and Baba Abdul Rahman who was with the senior national team for the 2014 World Cup qualifiers.This means Ebenezer Ofori and striker Ebenezer Assifuah have lost their places in the team which lost 3-1 to France last Friday.Midfielders Siedu Salifu and Clifford Aboagye have replaced Moses Odjer and Michael Anaba.The Black Satelllites need a win to enhance their chances of progressing to the knock-out stage.Spain are favourites after a resounding 4-1 win against USA in the opener on Friday. Ghana squad: Eric Antwi – Richmond Nketiah, Lawrence Lartey, Joseph Attamah, Baba Rahman – Alfred Duncan, Seidu Salifu, Frank Acheampong, Clifford Aboagye, Francis Narh – Richmond Boakye Yiadomlast_img read more

Felix Pena loses duel with reigning Cy Young winner Corey Kluber as Angels fall to Indians

first_img Angels offense breaks out to split doubleheader with Astros Angels’ poor pitching spoils an Albert Pujols milestone Jose Suarez’s rocky start sinks Angels in loss to Astros Over the next four innings, he did not allow a hit and he only walked one. In those innings he threw 47 pitches and 30 were strikes.“Once he found the zone,” Manager Mike Scioscia said, “he matched Corey, pitch for pitch.”Facing a Cleveland lineup that included two MVP candidates — José Ramírez and Francisco Lindor — among the seven left-handed swingers, Peña did not allow a hit in the first five innings.As he took the mound in the sixth, the video board at Progressive Field showed Peña with the caption: “Currently throwing a no-hitter.”If they were trying to get in Peña’s head, it didn’t work.“My plan is never to look up at the scoreboard,” Peña said.No more playful attempts to jinx Peña would be necessary. Five pitches later, Peña gave up a homer to Leonys Martín. Lindor then doubled and scored on a Michael Brantley single. Peña retired Ramírez before his night ended with a career-high 86 pitches.At that point, though, too much damage had already been done. Kluber retired all nine Angels hitters in the final three innings, his second complete game of the year.Their only real shot at a rally was in the third, when Eric Young Jr. doubled and Kole Calhoun walked. Justin Upton hit a flyout and Shohei Ohtani grounded out.“Corey is tough,” Scioscia said. “We had some chances early, but he does so many things with the ball. We hit a couple of balls hard, had guys on, couldn’t get that hit to get us on top. He pitched a great game obviously.” Angels’ Shohei Ohtani spending downtime working in outfield “It doesn’t really matter if it was a good game or a bad game,” Peña said through an interpreter. “The primary idea is to win. That’s what I strive for.”A 28-year-old forced into the Angels rotation because of injuries, Peña had posted a 2.73 ERA in his first six starts. The last time, though, against the Seattle Mariners, he got only one out and gave up seven runs.Related Articlescenter_img Newsroom GuidelinesNews TipsContact UsReport an Error With a chance to show if that was an aberration or the beginning of the end for the converted reliever, Peña threw 12 balls in his first 18 pitches against the Indians.He managed to escape that potentially troublesome first inning with two walks, thanks to catcher Francisco Arcia throwing out Francisco Lindor trying to steal.Peña said he tweaked his mechanics after that, aligning himself more with the plate, and it showed. PreviousLos Angeles Angels’ Mike Trout stands in the dugout during the third inning of a baseball game against the Cleveland Indians, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. Trout’s right wrist is still sore and the Angels will not risk him making it any worse. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Los Angeles Angels’ Albert Pujols hits a single off Cleveland Indians starting pitcher Corey Kluber in the sixth inning of a baseball game, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Los Angeles Angels’ Shohei Ohtani warms up before a baseball game against the Cleveland Indians, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak) SoundThe gallery will resume insecondsLos Angeles Angels’ Shohei Ohtani flexes his muscles before a baseball game against the Cleveland Indians, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Los Angeles Angels starting pitcher Felix Pena delivers in the first inning of a baseball game against the Cleveland Indians, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Cleveland Indians starting pitcher Corey Kluber delivers in the first inning of a baseball game against the Los Angeles Angels, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Cleveland Indians’ Edwin Encarnacion reacts after popping out in the first inning of a baseball game against the Los Angeles Angels, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Los Angeles Angels starting pitcher Felix Pena delivers in the first inning of a baseball game against the Cleveland Indians, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Cleveland Indians starting pitcher Corey Kluber delivers in the first inning of a baseball game against the Los Angeles Angels, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Cleveland Indians’ Leonys Martin runs out a ground ball in the third inning of a baseball game against the Los Angeles Angels, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. Martin was out on the play. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Cleveland Indians’ Francisco Lindor, left, cannot make the tag as Los Angeles Angels’ Andrelton Simmons slides safely into second base in the fourth inning of a baseball game, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Cleveland Indians’ Francisco Lindor throws out Los Angeles Angels’ Justin Upton at first base in the sixth inning of a baseball game, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Los Angeles Angels’ Kole Calhoun throws his helmet after striking out against Cleveland Indians starting pitcher Corey Kluber in the fifth inning of a baseball game, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Cleveland Indians’ Leonys Martin reacts after hitting a solo home run off Los Angeles Angels starting pitcher Felix Pena in the sixth inning of a baseball game, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Los Angeles Angels’ Shohei Ohtani watches from the dugout in the sixth inning of a baseball game against the Cleveland Indians, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Cleveland Indians’ Leonys Martin watches his ball after hitting a solo home run off Los Angeles Angels starting pitcher Felix Pena in the sixth inning of a baseball game, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Los Angeles Angels’ Shohei Ohtani walks back to the dugout after striking out in the sixth inning of a baseball game against the Cleveland Indians, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Cleveland Indians’ Michael Brantley watches his RBI-single off Los Angeles Angels starting pitcher Felix Pena in the sixth inning of a baseball game, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Los Angeles Angels starting pitcher Felix Pena watches a solo home run hit by Cleveland Indians’ Leonys Martin in the sixth inning of a baseball game, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Los Angeles Angels’ Shohei Ohtani runs out a ground ball in the third inning of a baseball game against the Cleveland Indians, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Cleveland Indians’ Francisco Lindor barehands a ball hit by Los Angeles Angels’ Justin Upton in the sixth inning of a baseball game, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. Upton was out on the play. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Los Angeles Angels’ Mike Trout stands in the dugout during the third inning of a baseball game against the Cleveland Indians, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. Trout’s right wrist is still sore and the Angels will not risk him making it any worse. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)Los Angeles Angels’ Albert Pujols hits a single off Cleveland Indians starting pitcher Corey Kluber in the sixth inning of a baseball game, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)NextShow Caption1 of 21Los Angeles Angels’ Albert Pujols hits a single off Cleveland Indians starting pitcher Corey Kluber in the sixth inning of a baseball game, Saturday, Aug. 4, 2018, in Cleveland. (AP Photo/Tony Dejak)ExpandCLEVELAND — It didn’t matter to Felix Peña that he had made a dramatic improvement from his last outing.The result was the same.One start after he got knocked out in the first, Peña took a no-hitter into the sixth before eventually allowing a couple runs that were all it took for the Angels to lose 3-0 to the Cleveland Indians and Corey Kluber on Saturday night.Sign up for Home Turf and get exclusive stories every SoCal sports fan must read, sent daily. Subscribe here.Peña was able to outduel a two-time Cy Young winner for part of his outing, but Kluber went the distance in a three-hitter against an Angels team playing once again without injured Mike Trout. Angels’ Mike Trout working on his defense, thanks to Twitter last_img read more